microcontroller boards sensors

microcontroller boards sensors

microcontroller boards sensors

microcontroller boards sensors

microcontroller boards sensors

What is Arduino?

Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino boards are able to read inputs – light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message – and turn it into an output – activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board. To do so you use the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring), and the Arduino Software (IDE), based on Processing.

Over the years Arduino has been the brain of thousands of projects, from everyday objects to complex scientific instruments. A worldwide community of makers – students, hobbyists, artists, programmers, and professionals – has gathered around this open-source platform, their contributions have added up to an incredible amount of accessible knowledge that can be of great help to novices and experts alike.

Arduino was born at the Ivrea Interaction Design Institute as an easy tool for fast prototyping, aimed at students without a background in electronics and programming. As soon as it reached a wider community, the Arduino board started changing to adapt to new needs and challenges, differentiating its offer from simple 8-bit boards to products for IoT applications, wearable, 3D printing, and embedded environments. All Arduino boards are completely open-source, empowering users to build them independently and eventually adapt them to their particular needs. The software, too, is open-source, and it is growing through the contributions of users worldwide.

Why Arduino?

Thanks to its simple and accessible user experience, Arduino has been used in thousands of different projects and applications. The Arduino software is easy-to-use for beginners, yet flexible enough for advanced users. It runs on Mac, Windows, and Linux. Teachers and students use it to build low cost scientific instruments, to prove chemistry and physics principles, or to get started with programming and robotics. Designers and architects build interactive prototypes, musicians and artists use it for installations and to experiment with new musical instruments. Makers, of course, use it to build many of the projects exhibited at the Maker Faire, for example. Arduino is a key tool to learn new things. Anyone – children, hobbyists, artists, programmers – can start tinkering just following the step by step instructions of a kit, or sharing ideas online with other members of the Arduino community.

There are many other microcontrollers and microcontroller platforms available for physical computing. Parallax Basic Stamp, Netmedia’s BX-24, Phidgets, MIT’s Handyboard, and many others offer similar functionality. All of these tools take the messy details of microcontroller programming and wrap it up in an easy-to-use package. Arduino also simplifies the process of working with microcontrollers, but it offers some advantage for teachers, students, and interested amateurs over other systems:

  • Inexpensive – Arduino boards are relatively inexpensive compared to other microcontroller platforms. The least expensive version of the Arduino module can be assembled by hand, and even the pre-assembled Arduino modules cost less than $50
  • Cross-platform – The Arduino Software (IDE) runs on Windows, Macintosh OSX, and Linux operating systems. Most microcontroller systems are limited to Windows.
  • Simple, clear programming environment – The Arduino Software (IDE) is easy-to-use for beginners, yet flexible enough for advanced users to take advantage of as well. For teachers, it’s conveniently based on the Processing programming environment, so students learning to program in that environment will be familiar with how the Arduino IDE works.
  • Open source and extensible software – The Arduino software is published as open source tools, available for extension by experienced programmers. The language can be expanded through C++ libraries, and people wanting to understand the technical details can make the leap from Arduino to the AVR C programming language on which it’s based. Similarly, you can add AVR-C code directly into your Arduino programs if you want to.
  • Open source and extensible hardware – The plans of the Arduino boards are published under a Creative Commons license, so experienced circuit designers can make their own version of the module, extending it and improving it. Even relatively inexperienced users can build the breadboard version of the module in order to understand how it works and save money.

What is a Raspberry Pi?

The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of all ages to explore computing, and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python. It’s capable of doing everything you’d expect a desktop computer to do, from browsing the internet and playing high-definition video, to making spreadsheets, word-processing, and playing games.

What’s more, the Raspberry Pi  has the ability to interact with the outside world, and has been used in a wide array of digital maker projects, from music machines and parent detectors to weather stations and tweeting birdhouses with infra-red cameras. We want to see the Raspberry Pi being used by kids all over the world to learn to program and understand how computers work.

Raspberry Pi Foundation

The Raspberry Pi Foundation is a registered educational charity (registration number 1129409) based in the UK. Our Foundation’s goal is to advance the education of adults and children, particularly in the field of computers, computer science and related subjects. See our stories page for more information about the Foundation’s charitable work.

You can read more about the history of Raspberry Pi and the people who have helped to make it the success it is today on our about page.

My Coding Studio


What A Microcontroller Board Can Do?

Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Adafruit, Nodemcu…

Microcontroller boards are able to read inputs from sensors – and turn it into an output – activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online.

You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board.

To do so you will need a microcontroller board like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Adafruit and so on. You can have a look on google what microcontroller brands are available.

malaysia microcontroller development
Raspberry Pi 4 Model B

Key factors to consider when choosing a microcontroller

1. Power efficiency

There is a trade-off between processing performance and power consumption: a device with higher processing power will consume more energy.  Therefore, if your microcontroller is wireless and running on a rechargeable battery, you need to weigh sacrificing power efficiency against getting more processing power, or vice versa

2. Security

Hacking which targets  IoT devices is rising, a threat that is especially relevant to microcontrollers used in automobiles.  In response, microcontroller makers are implementing layers of security such as cryptography and physical security. Now, users can purchase microcontrollers that have been certified to the latest security standards or use MCUs with on-chip secure hardware. 

3. Temperature tolerance

Depending on the environment in which your microcontrollers operate, you may want devices that withstand extreme temperature. There will be a trade-off between temperature tolerance and cost. 

4. Hardware architecture

A microcontroller’s packaging directly influences its size and performance.  Dual in-line packaging is the most common type. Small-outline transistors have a small footprint, and quad flat packs take up more areas but less vertical space.  Wafer level chip-scales are much smaller and pack in more processing power but are more expensive to manufacture.  Flat no-lead packages are better in heat diffusion. Ball grid arrays (BGAs) have high performance due to the compact package but also cost more to fabricate.

5. Processing power

How much processing power do you require for the task, will a single core processor suffice, or do you need a dual-core? A multicore processor will be significantly faster, but it will also consume more energy. Also, will a graphics processing unit (GPU) be necessary?

6. Memory

The amount of memory (RAM and ROM) you need will depend on the programs you will be running. More programs need more random access memory (RAM). In addition, a GPU will require not only more RAM but faster read/write time as well.

7. Hardware interface

The nature of the task will dictate the need for hardware interfaces such as USB, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, audio, video, or camera.

8. Software architecture

Some microcontrollers are operable on multiple OSs, and others are not. If you need to scale, it is better to use the same software architecture to increase interoperability.

9. Cost

Microcontrollers fall within a wide price range, from a hundred units for a few dollars to a few dollars per unit. If you want to scale, you need to consider the overall cost versus the individual performance power of a microcontroller.

Learn from project demo to build your own one

1. Arduino Project Demos

Click Here

2. Raspberry Pi Project Demos

Click Here

3. Adafruit Project Demos

Click Here

Robot Video Sample